The Pareto principle, or more commonly known as the 80-20 rule, is quiet useful. It states that 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. It can be applied to all sorts of scenarios—80% of profits of a company come from 20% of its customers, 80% of sales come from 20% of the sales staff, and, also beyond business, 80% of healthcare resources are used by 20% of the patients.
There may now be a sort of 80-20 rule for scientific data loss, if this study in Current Biology can be replicated across different areas of science. In the study, the authors looked at 516 ecology papers between 1991 and 2011. They found that as the studies got older their failure rate of acquiring its raw data increased. In the end, nearly 80% of scientific raw data seems to have been lost after 20 years of a study being published.
We must remember, however, that this is the same period which saw the highest uptake of digital technologies by the scientific community. So it may mean that the 80-20 rule of scientific data loss may just apply to this period, or some period before and after it.
With better technology, more collaboration and cheaper storage, journals and scientists are both getting better at having access to data. While most data becomes useless after a while because of the nature of research, trying to keep all raw data accessible will mean that key data gets preserved.
The Vikings were fabled to have owned a crystal that helped them navigate the seas. This was, of course, before magnetic compasses were invented. Few believed the tale. Now researchers in France seemed to have dug up a stone (pictured) which they believe was a sunstone.
The stone is a crystal of Iceland spar, a form of calcite that detects polarised light. Sunlight is polarised (that is its electromagnetic waves can travel in a particular orientation), which when passed through the sunstone could reveal the direction from which it came. Even if there was thick cloud cover, sunstones were able to reveal sun’s direction, making the Vikings’ lives easier.
PS: The stone pictured is not transparent because it has aged.
First: Bees can sense which flowers are “open for business” based on their electric fields. Although animals have been known to be able to detect electric fields, this is a first for an insect.
The way this works is that when a bee flies through it bumps into charged dust particles in the air, which cause it to be stripped of electrons thus gaining positive charge. Flowers on the other hand have negative charge.
This charge difference, however small, not only makes pollens jump from the flower to the bee, but it also helps the bee figure out which flower it should visit. The higher the voltage difference between the flower and the bee, the more the chances that the bee will find nectar in the flower
Second: Flowers attract bees by giving them a dose of caffeine.
Just like in humans, caffeine stimulates the bees. But what’s more is that researchers found caffeine also helps bees long-term memory retention. Thus the nectar of flowers that is laced with caffeine is remembered better by the bee.
It’s a win-win for both. Bees get more nectar and the flower gets to spread more of its pollens.